1 Mezilar

Google Search Engine For Research Papers

The marketplace for science search engines is competitive and crowded. But a database launched on 15 January aims to provide academics with new ways to analyse the scholarly literature — including the grant funding behind it.

Dimensions not only indexes papers and their citations, but also — uniquely among scholarly databases — connects publications to their related grants, funding agencies, patents and clinical trials. The tool “should give researchers more power to look at their fields and follow the money”, says James Wilsdon, a research-policy specialist at the University of Sheffield, UK.

The product was created by London-based technology firm Digital Science (operated by the Holtzbrinck Publishing Group, which also has a majority share in Nature’s publisher). It says that it worked with more than 100 research organizations and funders to build the database, which is an extension of a previous product, also called Dimensions, that focused on indexing grant funding. Anyone can search through publications free of charge, and see associated grants, patents and citation-based metrics. But institutions and funders must buy access to search and analyse grant and patent data, as well as to use an application programming interface (API) that allows automated data queries.

'Battle of the titans'

Dimensions is the latest in an expanding thicket of science databases and research analytics tools, says Steven Wooding, a research-policy analyst at the Centre for Science and Policy, part of the University of Cambridge, UK. Among the free tools available, Google Scholar is the most well-known search engine, although other specialist sites — including Microsoft Academic and Semantic Scholar — also crawl and index research papers and citations. On the subscription side, major products include Web of Science, owned by Clarivate Analytics, and Scopus, owned by publisher Elsevier; both firms also sell separate analytical tools that crunch numbers from these indexes.

Digital Science, Elsevier and Clarivate all offer scientists many other services, and all are vying to have universities and funders use their tools, says consultant Roger Schonfeld, programme director at Ithaka S+R, a non-profit consultancy based in New York City that advises academia on digital technology. “This emerging battle of the research workflow portfolio titans matters tremendously for academia,” Schonfeld wrote in a 15 January analysis at The Scholarly Kitchen, a blog run by the Society for Scholarly Publishing in Wheat Ridge, Colorado. By offering some data free of charge, Dimensions may be seeking to undercut use of Web of Science and Scopus, he says.

At its launch, some scientists seemed impressed with the new database, although others said that it looked like a work in progress. “It is slick, easy-to-use, and provides rapid access to information that other research discovery services don't,” tweeted Brian Nosek, executive director of the Center for Open Science in Charlottesville, Virginia. As a free tool for searching the literature, however, “I don’t expect that Dimensions will become a major competitor for Google Scholar”, says Ludo Waltman, a bibliometrics researcher at Leiden University in the Netherlands — although some researchers who want basic analytics may find it attractive, he added.

Wooding says that Dimensions seems more transparent about its data sources than do other subscription databases or search engines, and that its creators say they are keen to work with researchers to improve the software. But for now, he says, the paid-for product is clearly a work in progress, without the finesse of Scopus or Web of Science. Waltman says he agrees. “As an analytical tool, my first impression is that some elements of Dimensions still need to be significantly improved in order to reach a quality level comparable with the more established analytical suites.”

Competitors were circumspect about the tool. Elsevier declined to comment on a competitor’s product. Annette Thomas, chief executive of Clarivate Analytics’ scientific and academic research business, said: “The big issue is not what has been announced this week by one player or another, but how can we all work together towards the longer-term goal of improving a research system that, in certain important ways, is broken. That's completely central for us, and we welcome Digital Science's important contributions to the cause.”

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This page contains a representative list of major databases and search engines useful in an academic setting for finding and accessing articles in academic journals, repositories, archives, or other collections of scientific and other articles. As the distinction between a database and a search engine is unclear for these complex document retrieval systems, see:

  • the general list of search engines for all-purpose search engines that can be used for academic purposes
  • bibliographic databases for information about databases giving bibliographic information about finding books and journal articles.

Note that "free" or "subscription" can refer both to the availability of the database or of the journal articles included. This has been indicated as precisely as possible in the lists below.

This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness. You can help by expanding it with reliably sourced entries.

NameDiscipline(s)DescriptionAccess CostProvider(s)
Academic SearchMultidisciplinarySeveral versions: Complete, Elite, Premier, and Alumni Edition[1]SubscriptionEBSCO Publishing[2]
Aerospace & High Technology DatabaseAerospace, Aeronautics, AstronauticsSubscriptionProQuest[3]
African Journals OnLine (AJOL)MultidisciplinaryScholarly journals published in Africa[4]Free abstracts; Subscription full-textAfrican Journals OnLine[5]
AgeLineSociology, GerontologyIncludes information on aging-related topics, including economics, public health and policy.SubscriptionEBSCO Publishing[6]
AGRICOLA: Agricultural Online AccessAgricultureFree & SubscriptionProduced by the United States National Agricultural Library. Free access provided by NAL.[7] Subscription access provided by ProQuest,[8]OVID.[9]
AGRIS: Agricultural databaseAgricultureCovers agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, aquatic sciences and fisheries, human nutrition, extension literature from over 100 participating countries.

Material includes unique grey literature such as unpublished scientific and technical reports, theses, conference papers, government publications, and more.

FreeProduced by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. AGRIS
Airiti IncMultidisciplinarySubscriptionAiriti Inc[10]
Analytical AbstractsChemistrySubscriptionRoyal Society of Chemistry[11]
Analytical sciences digital libraryAnalytical chemistryFreeNational Science Digital Library and the Analytical Chemistry Division of the American Chemical Society[12]
Anthropological Index OnlineAnthropologyIndex only (no abstracts or full-text).FreeRoyal Anthropological Institute[13]
Anthropological LiteratureAnthropologyFree to Harvard faculty, staff and students. Subscription for non-Harvard access.Maintained by Harvard University. Non-Harvard access provided by OCLC[14]
ArachneArchaeology, Art historyGerman languageFreeGerman Archaeological Institute & the University of Cologne[15]
ArnetminerComputer ScienceOnline service used to index and search academic social networksFreeTsinghua University[16]
Arts & Humanities Citation IndexArts, HumanitiesPart of Web of ScienceSubscriptionClarivate Analytics[17]
arXivPhysics, Mathematics, Computer science, Nonlinear sciences, Quantitative biology and StatisticsRepository of electronic pre-prints of papers in the fields of mathematics, physics, astronomy, computer science, quantitative biology, statistics, and quantitative finance.FreeCornell University[18]
ASCE LibraryCivil Engineeringall civil engineering disciplines including structural engineering, geotechnical engineering, transportation engineering, construction engineering, environmental engineering, engineering mechanics, sustainability, water resources, irrigation. hydraulics, hydrology, waterways, urban planning, cold regions ...Abstract free. Fulltext subscription.American Society of Civil Engineers
Association for Computing Machinery Digital LibraryComputer Science, EngineeringSubscriptionAssociation for Computing Machinery[19]
Astrophysics Data SystemAstrophysics, Geophysics, PhysicsFreeHarvard University[20]
ATLA Religion DatabaseReligious studiesProvides information on topics such as biblical studies, world religions, church history, and religion in social issuesSubscription[21]
AULIMP: Air University Library's Index to Military PeriodicalsMilitary ScienceFreeAir University[22]
BASE: Bielefeld Academic Search EngineMultidisciplinaryFreeBielefeld University[23]
Beilstein databaseOrganic chemistrySubscriptionAvailable from Elsevier under the product name Reaxys[24]
Biological AbstractsBiologyA complete collection of bibliographic references covering life science and biomedical research literature published from more than 4,000 journals internationally.SubscriptionAvailable from Thomson Reuters[25]
BioOneBiology, Ecology, and Environmental ScienceA full-text aggregation of more than 180 scientific journals publishing current research in Biodiversity Conservation, Biology, Ecology, Environmental Science, Entomology, Ornithology, Plant Science, and Zoology.Free abstract & references, Open Access titles, and SubscriptionAvailable from BioOne[26]
Bioinformatic HarvesterBiology, BioinformaticsA meta search engine for 50 major bioinformatic databases and projects.FreeAvailable from Liebel-Lab KIT Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
Book Review Index OnlineBook reviewsSubscriptionThomson Gale[27]
Books In PrintBooksSubscriptionR.R. Bowker[28]
CAB AbstractsApplied life sciencesBibliographic information service providing access to applied life sciences literature.SubscriptionCABI[29]
Chemical Abstracts ServiceChemistrySubscriptionAmerican Chemical Society[30]
Chemisches Zentralblatt Structural DatabaseScience, Chemistryweb-based retrieval application that provides language independent access to the information contained in Chemisches ZentralblattSubscriptionAvailable from the InfoChem [31]
ChemXSeerChemistrythe projects seems abandoned in 2018FreePennsylvania State University[32]
Chinese Social Science Citation IndexSocial sciencesSubscriptionNanjing University[33]
Cochrane LibraryMedicine, HealthcareIncludes reviews of research to promote evidence-based healthcare.SubscriptionWiley Interscience[34]
CINAHL: Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied HealthNursing, Allied HealthSubscriptionEBSCO[35]
CiNiiMultidisciplinaryDatabase of 15 million articles in the Japanese language from 3600 journals.Free abstracts; Subscription full-textNational Institute of Informatics[36]
CHBD: Circumpolar Health Bibliographic DatabaseMedicineFreeUniversity of Calgary[37]
Citebase SearchMathematics, Computer science, PhysicsSemi-autonomous citation index of free online researchFreeUniversity of Southampton[38]
CiteULikeComputer scienceFree
CiteSeerComputer ScienceReplaced by CiteSeerX.FreePennsylvania State University[39]
CiteSeerXComputer science, Statistics, Mathematics, becoming MultidisciplinaryFreePennsylvania State University[40]
Civil engineering databaseCivil engineeringA bibliographic database covering all of ASCE's publications since 1872FreeAmerican Society of Civil Engineers
CogPrints: Cognitive Sciences Eprint ArchivesScience (General)FreeUniversity of Southampton[41]
The Collection of Computer Science BibliographiesComputer scienceFreeAlf-Christian Achilles[42]
CompendexEngineeringElectronic version of Engineering Index.SubscriptionElsevier[43]
Current Index to StatisticsStatisticsLimited free search[44]SubscriptionAmerican Statistical Association and the Institute of Mathematical Statistics[45]
Current ContentsMultidisciplinaryPart of Web of Science. Contains 7 discipline-specific subsets.SubscriptionClarivate Analytics
Directory of Open Access JournalsJournalsThe Directory Of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) lists more than 10,000 open access journals (September 2014) in multiple research areas.[46]FreeLund University[47]
dblp computer science bibliographyComputer scienceComprehensive list of papers from major computer science conferences and journalsFreeProduced by Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz Center for Informatics and University of Trier, Germany[48]
EconBizEconomicsEconBiz supports research in and teaching of economics with a central entry point for all kinds of subject-specific information and direct access to full texts.FreeProduced by the ZBW- German National Library of Economics– Leibniz Information Centre for Economics (ZBW)[49]
EconLitEconomicsThe American Economic Association's electronic database, the world's foremost source of references to economic literature.SubscriptionProduced by the American Economic Association.[50] Available from EBSCOhost, ProQuest, OVID, and AEA.[51]
EMBASEBiomedicine, PharmacologyBiomedical database with a strong focus on drug and pharmaceutical research.SubscriptionElsevier[52]
ERIC: Educational Resource Information CenterEducationEducation literature and resources. Provides access to over 1.3 million records dating back to 1966.FreeProduced by the United States Department of Education.[53] Also available by subscription from OCLC, CSA.
Europe PMCBiomedicalA database of biomedical and life sciences literature with access to full-text research articles and citations.[54] Includes text-mining tools and links to external molecular and medical data sets. A partner in PMC International.[55]FreeEMBL-EBI[56]
FSTA – Food Science and Technology AbstractsFood science, Food technology, NutritionThe world's leading database of information on food science, food technology and nutritionSubscriptionProduced by IFIS Publishing. FSTA can be accessed through EBSCOhost,[57]IHS Inc.,[58]Ovid,[59]ProquestDialog,[60]STN[61] and Web of Science.[62]
GENESISWomen's historyDescriptions of women's history collections from sources in the UK, as well as women's history websites.FreeLondon Metropolitan University[63]
GeoRefGeosciencesSubscriptionAmerican Geosciences Institute
Global HealthPublic HealthSpecialist bibliographic, abstracting and indexing database dedicated to public health research and practice.SubscriptionCABI[64]
Golm Metabolome DatabaseMass spectrometryThe Golm Metabolome Database (GMD) is a reference mass spectra library of biologically active metabolites quantified using gas chromatography (GC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS).Free online search; offline use by subscriptionGolm Metabolome Database[65]
Google ScholarMultidisciplinaryFreeGoogle[66]
GoPubMedMedicineGoPubMed, the first knowledge-based search engine for the life sciences industry.FreeTransinsight[67]
HCI BibliographyHuman-computer interfaceAn electronic bibliography for most of HCI for researchers, developers, educators, and studentsFreeGary Perlman[68]
HubMedMedicineAn alternative interface to the PubMed medical literature databaseFreeAlf Eaton[69]
IEEE XploreComputer Science, Engineering, ElectronicsSubscriptionIEEE[70]
Index CopernicusMultidisciplinary scienceScientific journal database – the IC Journal Master List – contains currently over 2,500 journals from all over the world, including 700 journals from Poland. The journals registered in this database underwent rigorous, multidimensional parameterization, proving high quality. The Ministry of Science and Higher Education acknowledged the IC Journal Master List by placing it on the list of scored databases, for being indexed in IC JML journals get additional points in the Ministry’s evaluation process.[71]FreeIndex Copernicus International[72]
Information Bridge: Department of Energy Scientific and Technical InformationMultidisciplinaryThe Information Bridge: DOE Scientific and Technical Information provides free public access to over 266,000 full-text documents and bibliographic citations of Department of Energy (DOE) research report literature. Documents are primarily from 1991 forward and were produced by DOE, the DOE contractor community, and/or DOE grantees. Legacy documents are added as they become available in electronic format.FreeUnited States Department of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information[73]
InformitMultidisciplinaryAustralasian aggregator of bibliographic databases and journalsN/ARMIT Publishing[74]
IngentaConnectMultidisciplinaryFree searching; Subscription full-textIngenta[75]
Indian Citation IndexMultidisciplinaryIndian Citation Index (ICI) is a home grown abstracts and citation database, with multidisciplinary objective knowledge contents from about 1000 top Indian scholarly journals. It provides powerful search engine to fulfill search and evaluation purposes for researchers, policy makers, decision makers etc.SubscriptionICI[76]
IARPMultidisciplinaryOpen-access knowledge management system incorporating grants, publications, conferences in natural and social & behavioral sciences. The site provides tools to build graphic reports.FreeVolunteer Collaboration[77]
InspecPhysics, Engineering, Computer ScienceThe leading bibliographic database providing abstracts and indexing to the world's scientific and technical papers in physics, electrical engineering, electronics, communications, control engineering, computing, information technology, manufacturing, production, and mechanical engineering.SubscriptionIET[78]
INSPIRE-HEPPhysics, (High Energy)FreeCERN, DESY, Fermilab, SLAC and IHEP[79]
International Directory of PhilosophyPhilosophyContains information on university philosophy departments and programs, philosophical societies, research centers, journals, and philosophy publishers in the U.S., Canada, and approximately 130 other countries.Free search; full access by subscriptionPhilosophy Documentation Center[80]
IsidoreHumanities, social scienceIsidore is a platform of search allowing the access to digital data of Humanities and Social Sciences. It relies on the principles of Web of data and provides access to data in free access.FreeHuma-Num[81]
JournalSeekMultidisciplinaryOpen access journals in different languageLinks to journal's home page and publishersJournalSeek[82]
Journals TodayMultidisciplinaryLatest abstracts of reputed journals across disciplensFreeJournal Today[83]
JSTOR: Journal StorageMultidisciplinaryJSTOR Collections: Current Journals; Archived Journals (first issue through 3–5 years ago); Books; and Primary Source Collections
FREE Resources: 3 articles every 2 weeks (Register and Read Program, archived journals). Also, early journals (prior to 1923 in US, 1870 elsewhere) free, no registry necessary.
Free and SubscriptionJSTOR[84]
JurnMultidisciplinaryJurn is a free-to-use online search tool for finding and downloading free full-text scholarly works. In 2014 Jurn expanded beyond open access journals in the arts and humanities, to also index open journals in ecology, science, biomedical, business and economics. Jurn is actively curated and maintained.FreeJurn[85]
Lesson PlanetEducation (K-12)Over 400,000 teacher-reviewed classroom resources including lesson plans, worksheets, educational videos, and education articles.Free Abstract; Subscription full-textLesson Planet[86]
LexisNexisLaw (general)Electronic database for legal and public-records related informationSubscriptionReed Elsevier[87]
LingbuzzLinguisticsA free archive of linguistics articles, with a focus on syntax, semantics, phonology and morphology.FreeCenter for Advanced Study in Theoretical Linguistics, University of Tromsø[88]
MathSciNetMathematicsAvailable in print as Mathematical ReviewsSubscriptionAmerican Mathematical Society[89]
MedlinePlusMedicineFreeProduced by the United States National Library of Medicine, the United States National Institutes of Health, and the United States Department of Health and Human Services[90]
MendeleyMultidisciplinaryThe Mendeley research catalog is a crowdsourced database of research documents. Researchers have uploaded nearly 100M documents into the catalog with additional contributions coming directly from subject repositories like Pubmed Central and Arxiv.org or web crawls.FreeMendeley[91]
Merck IndexChemistry, Biology, PharmacologyAlso available in print.SubscriptionFormerly produced by Merck & Co.,[92] now available from the Royal Society of Chemistry[93]
Meteorological and Geoastrophysical AbstractsMeteorology, Astrophysics, GeologySubscriptionProduced by the American Meteorological Society. Available from Dialog[94] and CSA.[95]
NBER: National Bureau of Economic ResearchEconomicsFreeNational Bureau of Economic Research[96]
Microsoft AcademicMultidisciplinaryProvides many innovative ways to explore scientific papers, conferences, journals, and authors[97]FreeMicrosoft
MyScienceWorkScienceDatabase includes more than 70 million scientific publications and 12 million patents.FreeMyScienceWork
National Criminal Justice Reference Service[98]Criminology, SociologyAbstracts of scholarly journal articles, agency and NGO reports, and conference proceedingsFreeUnited States Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs[99]
National Diet Library CollectionMultidisciplinaryJapanese. Catalog for the National Library of Japan.N/ANational Diet Library[100]
OAIsterMultidisciplinaryFreeOCLC[101]
OpenEdition.orgHumanities, social scienceOpenEdition offers the academic community four international-scale publication and information platforms in the humanities and social sciencesFreeCléo (UMS 3287) CNRSEHESSUniversity of Avignon[102]
OpenSIGLEGrey literatureIndexes European grey literature.FreeInstitut de l'information scientifique et technique[103]
Philosophy Documentation Center eCollectionApplied ethics, Philosophy, Religious studiesJournals, series, conference proceedings, and other works from several countries online.Free abstract & preview; Subscription full-textPhilosophy Documentation Center[104]
Philosophy Research IndexPhilosophyIndex of books, journals, disserations, and other documentsSubscriptionPhilosophy Documentation Center[104]
PhilPapersPhilosophyFreePhilPapers[105]
POIESIS: Philosophy Online SerialsPhilosophy, applied ethics, religious studiesJournals and series, online access for institutions with printFree abstract & preview; Subscription full-textPhilosophy Documentation Center[104]
POPLINEPopulation, Family Planning, Reproductive HealthPOPLINE® contains the world’s most comprehensive collection of population, family planning and related reproductive health and development literature. An international resource, POPLINE helps program managers, policy makers, and service providers in low- and middle-income countries and in development-supportive agencies and organizations gain access to journal articles and other scientific, technical, and programmatic publications.FreeKnowledge for Health, Center for Communication Programs, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health[106]
Project MUSEHumanities, social scienceProject MUSE is a provider of digital humanities and social science content for the scholarly community. MUSE provides full-text versions of scholarly journals and books.SubscriptionProject MUSE, Johns Hopkins University Press[107]
PsycINFOPsychologyThe largest resource devoted to peer-reviewed literature in behavioral science and mental health. It contains over 3.7 million records with bibliographic information and extensive indexing, more than 60 million cited references, and has comprehensive coverage dating back to the mid-19th century, with sporadic coverage going back as far as the 16th century.SubscriptionProduced by the APA.[108] Available from several database vendors.[109]
Psychology's Feminist VoicesPsychologyAn online, multimedia digital archive containing the profiles of 250 feminist psychologists who have shaped and continue to transform the discipline of psychology. Profiles are organized in two sections, "Women Past" and "Feminist Presence." All profiles on the Feminist Presence section contain original interview transcripts and video clips with the psychologist discussing their feminist development and academic career.FreeBased at York University, Toronto, Canada.[110]
PubChemChemistryFreeNational Center for Biotechnology Information and the U.S. National Library of Medicine[111]
PubgetMultidisciplinarySubscriptionPubget
PubMedBiomedicalA database primarily of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topicsFreeNational Institutes of Health and the U.S. National Library of Medicine[112]
PubPsychPsychologyPubPsych is a free information retrieval system for psychological resources. It offers a comprehensive and balanced selection of resources from a growing number of international databases with a European focus, covering the needs of academic and professional psychologists.FreeLeibniz Institute for Psychology Information
Questia: Online Research LibraryMultidisciplinary (Historical)SubscriptionQuestia[113]
Readers' Guide to Periodical LiteratureJournals and MagazinesCoverage: 1983–present.SubscriptionH. W. Wilson Company[114]
Reader's Guide Retrospective: 1890–1982Journals and MagazinesSubscriptionH. W. Wilson Company[115]
RePEc: Research Papers in EconomicsEconomicsFreeVolunteer Collaboration[116]
Retina medical searchBiomedicalBiomedical resources with special focus for medical professionals.

searches among physician level standard documents eliminating patient level materials.

FreeRetina medical search[117]
Rock's BackpagesMusicPrimary documents from the history of rock and rollSubscription. Limited free access with registration.Backpages Limited[118]
Russian Science Citation IndexScientific journalsA bibliographic database of scientific publications in Russian.FreeScientific Electronic Library[119]
SafetyLitMultidisciplinaryCitations and abstracts of journal articles and reports from researchers working in the more than 35 distinct professional disciplines (architecture - zoology) relevant to preventing unintentional injuries, violence, and self-harm.FreeSafetyLit Foundation[120] in cooperation with the Graduate School of Public Health, San Diego State University[121] and the World Health Organization's Department of Violence and Injury Prevention[122]
SciELOJournalsSciELO is a bibliographic database and a model for cooperative electronic publishing in developing countries originally from Brazil. It contains 985 scientific journals from different countries in free and universal access, full-text format.FreeFAPESP, CNPq and BIREME
Science.govMultidisciplinaryA gateway to government science information and research results. Science.gov provides a search of over 45 scientific databases and 200 million pages of science information with just one query, and is a gateway to over 2000 scientific Websites.FreeScience.gov Alliance, 18 scientific and technical organizations from 14 federal agencies that contribute to Science.gov. United States Department of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information serves as the operating agent for Science.gov.[123]
Science AcceleratorMultidisciplinaryA gateway to results of DOE research and development and major R&D accomplishments of interest to DOE.FreeUnited States Department of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information.[124]
Science Citation IndexScience (General)Part of Web of ScienceSubscriptionClarivate Analytics
ScienceOpenMultidisciplinarySearch engine for natural and physical sciences, social sciences, and humanities. Incorporates arXiv, PubMed, and SciELO. Integrated with ORCID for overlay and peer review services. All articles display Altmetric scores.FreeScienceOpen[125]
Scientific Information Database (SID)Engineering & Technology, Medical Science, Basic Science, Human SciencesIt is a free bank with multipurpose goals, containing Engineering & Technology, Medical, Basic Science, Human Sciences papers.FreeScientific Information Database[126]
SCIndeks - Serbian Citation IndexMultidisciplinaryA combination of an online multidisciplinary bibliographic database, a national citation index, an Open Access full-text journal repository and an electronic publishing platform.FreeCEON/CEES - Centre for Evaluation in Education and Science, Serbia[127]
ScopusMultidisciplinaryScopus is the world's largest abstract and citation database of peer-reviewed research literature. It contains over 20,500 titles from more than 5,000 international publishers. While it is a subscription product, authors can review and update their profiles via ORCID.org or by first searching for their profile at the free Scopus author lookup page.SubscriptionElsevier[128]
SearchTeamMultidisciplinaryStudents search together collaboratively for scholarly articles and resourcesFreeZakta[129]
Semantic ScholarComputer scienceIt is designed to quickly highlight the most important papers and identify the connections between them. It includes currently only computer science publications.FreeAllen Institute for Artificial Intelligence[130]
Social Science Citation IndexSocial sciencePart of Web of ScienceSubscriptionClarivate Analytics[131]
Socol@r: SocolarMultidisciplinaryScholarly open access resources in different languageFree abstracts; Links to full-textSocolar[132]
SPRESI DatabaseScience, Chemistrychemical structure and reaction database, product name: SPRESIweb, SPRESImobileSubscriptionAvailable from InfoChem [31]
SSRN: Social Science Research NetworkSocial scienceContains an abstracts database and an electronic paper collection, arranged by discipline.FreeSocial Science Electronic Publishing, Inc.[133]
SparrhoMultidisciplinarySparrho is a personalised platform that allows users to discover, curate and share over 60 million scientific research articles and patents from 45k+ journals and preprint servers.FreeSparrho[134]
INSPIRE-HEPPhysics, (High Energy)FreeCERN, DESY, Fermilab, SLAC and IHEP[79]
SpringerLinkMultidisciplinaryFree abstract & preview; Subscription full-textSpringer[135]
Ulrich's Periodicals DirectoryPeriodicalsSubscriptionProQuest[136]
VET-BibSocial Science, EducationEuropean vocational education and training (VET) literatureFreeEuropean Centre for the Development of Vocational Training[137]
Web of ScienceMultidisciplinaryIncludes other products, such as Social Science Citation Index, Science Citation Index, Biological Abstracts & The Zoological RecordSubscriptionClarivate Analytics[138]
WestLawLaw (General)SubscriptionThomson Reuters
WorldCatMultidisciplinaryUnified catalog of member libraries' catalogsFree & SubscriptionOCLC[139]
WorldWideScienceMultidisciplinaryWorldWideScience is a global science gateway composed of national and international scientific databases and portals. WorldWideScience accelerates scientific discovery and progress by providing one-stop searching of databases from around the world. Multilingual WorldWideScience provides real-time searching and translation of globally dispersed multilingual scientific literature.FreeThe WorldWideScience Alliance, a multilateral partnership, consists of participating member countries and provides the governance structure for WorldWideScience. United States Department of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information serves as the operating agent for WorldWideScience.[140]
Zasshi Kiji Sakuin: Japanese Periodicals IndexJournalsJapanese.N/ANational Diet Library's Online Catalog,[141]MagazinePlus,[142]CiNii[143]
Zentralblatt MATHMathematicsFirst three records free without subscription.SubscriptionSpringer Science+Business Media[144]
The Zoological RecordZoologyUnofficial register of scientific names & papers in Zoology. Coverage 1864–present.SubscriptionClarivate Analytics[145]

See also[edit]

Main categories: Scholarly databases and Scholarly search services

See also: the categories Full text scholarly online databases and Bibliographic databases and indexes.

References[edit]

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