1 Taulmaran

Female To Male Gender Reassignment Surgery Results Pictures

General Principles

In performing a phalloplasty for a FTM transsexual, the surgeon should reconstruct an aesthetically appealing neophallus, with erogenous and tactile sensation, which enables the patient to void while standing and have sexual intercourse like a natural male, in a one-stage procedure.17,18 The reconstructive procedure should also provide a normal scrotum, be predictably reproducible without functional loss in the donor area, and leave the patient with minimal scarring or disfigurement.

Despite the multitude of flaps that have been employed and described (often as Case Reports), the radial forearm is universally considered the gold standard in penile reconstruction.17,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28

In the largest series to date (almost 300 patients), Monstrey et al29 recently described the technical aspects of radial forearm phalloplasty and the extent to which this technique, in their hands approximates the criteria for ideal penile reconstruction.

Technique

For the genitoperineal transformation (vaginectomy, urethral reconstruction, scrotoplasty, phalloplasty), two surgical teams operate at the same time with the patient first placed in a gynecological (lithotomy) position. In the perineal area, a urologist may perform a vaginectomy, and lengthen the urethra with mucosa between the minor labiae. The vaginectomy is a mucosal colpectomy in which the mucosal lining of the vaginal cavity is removed. After excision, a pelvic floor reconstruction is always performed to prevent possible diseases such as cystocele and rectocele. This reconstruction of the fixed part of the urethra is combined with a scrotal reconstruction by means of two transposition flaps of the greater labia resulting in a very natural looking bifid scrotum.

Simultaneously, the plastic surgeon dissects the free vascularized flap of the forearm. The creation of a phallus with a tube-in-a-tube technique is performed with the flap still attached to the forearm by its vascular pedicle (Fig. 8A). This is commonly performed on the ulnar aspect of the skin island. A small skin flap and a skin graft are used to create a corona and simulate the glans of the penis (Fig. 8B).

Figure 8

(A–D) Phallic reconstruction with the radial forearm flap: creation of a tube (urethra) within a tube (penis).

Once the urethra is lengthened and the acceptor (recipient) vessels are dissected in the groin area, the patient is put into a supine position. The free flap can be transferred to the pubic area after the urethral anastomosis: the radial artery is microsurgically connected to the common femoral artery in an end-to-side fashion and the venous anastomosis is performed between the cephalic vein and the greater saphenous vein (Fig. 8C). One forearm nerve is connected to the ilioinguinal nerve for protective sensation and the other nerve of the arm is anastomosed to one of the dorsal clitoral nerves for erogenous sensation. The clitoris is usually denuded and buried underneath the penis, thus keeping the possibility to be stimulated during sexual intercourse with the neophallus.

In the first 50 patients of this series, the defect on the forearm was covered with full-thickness skin grafts taken from the groin area. In subsequent patients, the defect was covered with split-thickness skin grafts harvested from the medial and anterior thigh (Fig. 8D).

All patients received a suprapubic urinary diversion postoperatively.

The patients remain in bed during a one-week postoperative period, after which the transurethral catheter is removed. At that time, the suprapubic catheter was clamped, and voiding was begun. Effective voiding might not be observed for several days. Before removal of the suprapubic catheter, a cystography with voiding urethrography was performed.

The average hospital stay for the phalloplasty procedure was 2½ weeks.

Tattooing of the glans should be performed after a 2- to 3-month period, before sensation returns to the penis.

Implantation of the testicular prostheses should be performed after 6 months, but it is typically done in combination with the implantation of a penile erection prosthesis. Before these procedures are undertaken, sensation must be returned to the tip of the penis. This usually does not occur for at least a year.

The Ideal Goals of Penile Reconstruction in FTM Surgery

What can be achieved with this radial forearm flap technique as to the ideal requisites for penile reconstruction?

A ONE-STAGE PROCEDURE

In 1993, Hage20 stated that a complete penile reconstruction with erection prosthesis never can be performed in one single operation. Monstrey et al,29 early in their series and to reduce the number of surgeries, performed a (sort of) all-in-one procedure that included a SCM and a complete genitoperineal transformation. However, later in their series they performed the SCM first most often in combination with a total hysterectomy and ovariectomy.

The reason for this change in protocol was that lengthy operations (>8 hours) resulted in considerable blood loss and increased operative risk.30 Moreover, an aesthetic SCM is not to be considered as an easy operation and should not be performed “quickly” before the major phalloplasty operation.

AN AESTHETIC PHALLUS

Phallic construction has become predictable enough to refine its aesthetic goals, which includes the use of a technique that can be replicated with minimal complications. In this respect, the radial forearm flap has several advantages: the flap is thin and pliable allowing the construction of a normal sized, tube-within-a-tube penis; the flap is easy to dissect and is predictably well vascularized making it safe to perform an (aesthetic) glansplasty at the distal end of the flap. The final cosmetic outcome of a radial forearm phalloplasty is a subjective determination, but the ability of most patients to shower with other men or to go to the sauna is the usual cosmetic barometer (Fig. 9A-C).

Figure 9

(A–C) Late postoperative results of radial forearm phalloplasties.

The potential aesthetic drawbacks of the radial forearm flap are the need for a rigidity prosthesis and possibly some volume loss over time.

TACTILE AND EROGENOUS SENSATION

Of the various flaps used for penile reconstruction, the radial forearm flap has the greatest sensitivity.1 Selvaggi and Monstrey et al. always connect one antebrachial nerve to the ilioinguinal nerve for protective sensation and the other forearm nerve with one dorsal clitoral nerve. The denuded clitoris was always placed directly below the phallic shaft. Later manipulation of the neophallus allows for stimulation of the still-innervated clitoris. After one year, all patients had regained tactile sensitivity in their penis, which is an absolute requirement for safe insertion of an erection prosthesis.31

In a long-term follow-up study on postoperative sexual and physical health, more than 80% of the patients reported improvement in sexual satisfaction and greater ease in reaching orgasm (100% in practicing postoperative FTM transsexuals).32

VOIDING WHILE STANDING

For biological males as well as for FTM transsexuals undergoing a phalloplasty, the ability to void while standing is a high priority.33 Unfortunately, the reported incidences of urological complications, such as urethrocutaneous fistulas, stenoses, strictures, and hairy urethras are extremely high in all series of phalloplasties, as high as 80%.34 For this reason, certain (well-intentioned) surgeons have even stopped reconstructing a complete neo-urethra.35,36

In their series of radial forearm phalloplasties, Hoebeke and Monstrey still reported a urological complication rate of 41% (119/287), but the majority of these early fistulas closed spontaneously and ultimately all patients were able to void through the newly reconstructed penis.37 Because it is unknown how the new urethra—a 16-cm skin tube—will affect bladder function in the long term, lifelong urologic follow-up was strongly recommended for all these patients.

MINIMAL MORBIDITY

Complications following phalloplasty include the general complications attendant to any surgical intervention such as minor wound healing problems in the groin area or a few patients with a (minor) pulmonary embolism despite adequate prevention (interrupting hormonal therapy, fractioned heparin subcutaneously, elastic stockings). A vaginectomy is usually considered a particularly difficult operation with a high risk of postoperative bleeding, but in their series no major bleedings were seen.30 Two early patients displayed symptoms of nerve compression in the lower leg, but after reducing the length of the gynecological positioning to under 2 hours, this complication never occurred again. Apart from the urinary fistulas and/or stenoses, most complications of the radial forearm phalloplasty are related to the free tissue transfer. The total flap failure in their series was very low (<1%, 2/287) despite a somewhat higher anastomotic revision rate (12% or 34/287). About 7 (3%) of the patients demonstrated some degree of skin slough or partial flap necrosis. This was more often the case in smokers, in those who insisted on a large-sized penis requiring a larger flap, and also in patients having undergone anastomotic revision.

With smoking being a significant risk factor, under our current policy, we no longer operate on patients who fail to quit smoking one year prior to their surgery.

NO FUNCTIONAL LOSS AND MINIMAL SCARRING IN THE DONOR AREA

The major drawback of the radial forearm flap has always been the unattractive donor site scar on the forearm (Fig. 10). Selvaggi et al conducted a long-term follow-up study38 of 125 radial forearm phalloplasties to assess the degree of functional loss and aesthetic impairment after harvesting such a large forearm flap. An increased donor site morbidity was expected, but the early and late complications did not differ from the rates reported in the literature for the smaller flaps as used in head and neck reconstruction.38 No major or long-term problems (such as functional limitation, nerve injury, chronic pain/edema, or cold intolerance) were identified. Finally, with regard to the aesthetic outcome of the donor site, they found that the patients were very accepting of the donor site scar, viewing it as a worthwhile trade-off for the creation of a phallus (Fig. 10).38 Suprafascial flap dissection, full thickness skin grafts, and the use of dermal substitutes may contribute to a better forearm scar.

Figure 10

(A,B) Aspect of the donor site after a phalloplasty with a radial forearm flap.

NORMAL SCROTUM

For the FTM patient, the goal of creating natural-appearing genitals also applies to the scrotum. As the labia majora are the embryological counterpart of the scrotum, many previous scrotoplasty techniques left the hair-bearing labia majora in situ, with midline closure and prosthetic implant filling, or brought the scrotum in front of the legs using a V-Y plasty. These techniques were aesthetically unappealing and reminiscent of the female genitalia. Selvaggi in 2009 reported on a novel scrotoplasty technique, which combines a V-Y plasty with a 90-degree turning of the labial flaps resulting in an anterior transposition of labial skin (Fig. 11). The excellent aesthetic outcome of this male-looking (anteriorly located) scrotum, the functional advantage of fewer urological complications and the easier implantation of testicular prostheses make this the technique of choice.39

Figure 11

Reconstruction of a lateral looking scrotum with two transposition flaps: (A) before and (B) after implantation of testicular prostheses.

SEXUAL INTERCOURSE

In a radial forearm phalloplasty, the insertion of erection prosthesis is required to engage in sexual intercourse. In the past, attempts have been made to use bone or cartilage, but no good long-term results are described. The rigid and semirigid prostheses seem to have a high perforation rate and therefore were never used in our patients. Hoebeke, in the largest series to date on erection prostheses after penile reconstruction, only used the hydraulic systems available for impotent men. A recent long-term follow-up study showed an explantation rate of 44% in 130 patients, mainly due to malpositioning, technical failure, or infection. Still, more than 80% of the patients were able to have normal sexual intercourse with penetration.37 In another study, it was demonstrated that patients with an erection prosthesis were more able to attain their sexual expectations than those without prosthesis (Fig. 12).32

Figure 12

(A,B) Phalloplasty after implantation of an erection prosthesis.

A major concern regarding erectile prostheses is long-term follow-up. These devices were developed for impotent (older) men who have a shorter life expectancy and who are sexually less active than the mostly younger FTM patients.

Alternative Phalloplasty Techniques

METAIDOIOPLASTY

A metoidioplasty uses the (hypertrophied) clitoris to reconstruct the microphallus in a way comparable to the correction of chordee and lengthening of a urethra in cases of severe hypospadias. Eichner40 prefers to call this intervention “the clitoris penoid.” In metoidioplasty, the clitoral hood is lifted and the suspensory ligament of the clitoris is detached from the pubic bone, allowing the clitoris to extend out further. An embryonic urethral plate is divided from the underside of the clitoris to permit outward extension and a visible erection. Then the urethra is advanced to the tip of the new penis. The technique is very similar to the reconstruction of the horizontal part of the urethra in a normal phalloplasty procedure. During the same procedure, a scrotal reconstruction, with a transposition flap of the labia majora (as previously described) is performed combined with a vaginectomy.

FTM patients interested in this procedure should be informed preoperatively that voiding while standing cannot be guaranteed, and that sexual intercourse will not be possible (Fig. 13).

Figure 13

Results of a metoidioplasty procedure.

The major advantage of metoidioplasty is the complete lack of scarring outside the genital area. Another advantage is that its cost is substantially lower than that of phalloplasty. Complications of this procedure also include urethral obstruction and/or urethral fistula.

It is always possible to perform a regular phalloplasty (e.g., with a radial forearm flap) at a later stage, and with substantially less risk of complications and operation time.

FIBULA FLAP

There have been several reports on penile reconstruction with the fibular flap based on the peroneal artery and the peroneal vein.27,41,42 It consists of a piece of fibula that is vascularized by its periosteal blood supply and connected through perforating (septal) vessels to an overlying skin island at the lateral site of the lower leg. The advantage of the fibular flap is that it makes sexual intercourse possible without a penile prosthesis. The disadvantages are a pointed deformity to the distal part of the penis when the extra skin can glide around the end of fibular bone, and that a permanently erected phallus is impractical.

Many authors seem to agree that the fibular osteocutaneous flap is an optimal solution for penile reconstruction in a natal male.42

NEW SURGICAL DEVELOPMENTS: THE PERFORATOR FLAPS

Perforator flaps are considered the ultimate form of tissue transfer. Donor site morbidity is reduced to an absolute minimum, and the usually large vascular pedicles provide an additional range of motion or an easier vascular anastomosis. At present, the most promising perforator flap for penile reconstruction is the anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap. This flap is a skin flap based on a perforator from the descending branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery, which is a branch from the femoral artery. It can be used both as a free flap43 and as a pedicled flap44 then avoiding the problems related to microsurgical free flap transfer. The problem related to this flap is the (usually) thick layer of subcutaneous fat making it difficult to reconstruct the urethra as a vascularized tube within a tube. This flap might be more indicated for phallic reconstruction in the so-called boys without a penis, like in cases of vesical exstrophy (Fig. 14). However, in the future, this flap may become an interesting alternative to the radial forearm flap, particularly as a pedicled flap. If a solution could be found for a well-vascularized urethra, use of the ALT flap could be an attractive alternative to the radial forearm phalloplasty. The donor site is less conspicuous, and secondary corrections at that site are easier to make. Other perforator flaps include the thoracodorsal perforator artery flap (TAP) and the deep inferior epigastric perforator artery flap (DIEP). The latter might be an especially good solution for FTM patients who have been pregnant in the past. Using the perforator flap as a pedicled flap can be very attractive, both financially and technically.

Figure 14

Penile reconstruction with a pedicled anterolateral thigh flap. (A) Preoperative and (B) postoperative results.

Introduction

Hi everyone! In this video I will be discussing my transition from male to female. There will be pictures during this video, though not many since I avoided the camera at all cost pre-transition. So, I mainly only have school photos.

So, I am a transgender / transsexual person, meaning I was born in the wrong body, it is not a mental illness like some people may think. In my case, I was born a male, lived the first 22 years of my life as one, but then made the transition to become who I really was, a female. I came out and started seeing a therapist in late 2010, been on hormones since late 2011, lived full-time since 2012, and had sex reassignment surgery in early 2013. So, it took about a year and a half from hormones to SRS.

I wouldn’t say that I am completely female though. I call myself a hybrid. I’d say 60% female and 40% male. So, I’m quite androgynous. Not with my appearance, but with some of my personality. While I identify with both male and female genders, there are times I identify with neither. Feeling neither male or female. I don’t know what I am a lot of times.


Pre-Transition

So, as early as I remember, I always wanted to be a girl. I recall when I was under 10 years old, my mother was watching this movie on cross-dressing men, and I happened to see part of it and realized that’s what I wanted to do. When I became a teenager and started to go through puberty, it was an absolutely awful experience. My body was changing in a way I didn’t want it to, and I was terrified and hated myself.

I remember seeing a documentary on TV about an older male to female that was about to undergo surgery and I was so fascinated by this and amazed that it was possible to change your sex organs. I kept saying to myself, this will be me when I get older. And, sure enough, 10 years later, her I am.

I knew then what I was, and what I needed to do to be happy, but couldn’t tell anyone. I was so reserved that not even my family really knew who I was. This is the moment that I’ve heard a lot of people think they’re gay or lesbian. And, when they come out and live that way, life may be a little better, but still isn’t right. That is when they realize that it’s something a lot more. For me, I never went through a period that I thought I was gay. I was attracted to females, and still am, so I’m a lesbian.

I hated myself so much, whenever I would look in the mirror I would see an ugly disgusting slob. People would say I was a handsome young man, but I hated when they said that because, I was not a man, and I didn’t see myself as handsome. Whenever I would take a photo of myself or look in the mirror, I would become so depressed and cry. I just didn’t want to live because there was no life worth living if I couldn’t love myself. I would hope and wish each day that I could wake up in the morning as a female, with the right body. I hated how I looked, my body, and of course the male parts I had. I just wanted to get rid of it.

When I turned 18, the feeling of wanting to be a female seemed to almost diminish. I think this was due to the fact that I was focusing on other matters that were extremely important to me. The thought of it was no longer something I wanted to do. I still wasn’t confident in myself, hated who I was, but was somewhat ok with being a male.

It was when I turned 20 that the feelings started to return, even stronger than before. And, I knew then I had to do something.


Transition

I started doing plenty of research, watching tons of other people on YouTube that were also male to female that we already living full-time. I remember just how much I wanted to be full-time as well, but I couldn’t express my feelings, since I didn’t know how. I was scared about how people would react when they knew. And thought I would be an ugly female that couldn’t pass. I was terrified that people would look at me weird and see me as a guy dressing as a woman. I had facial hair that was very dark and visible, even after I shaved. I was concerned about my masculine voice, facial features, as well as the Adam’s apple. I just didn’t see how I could see myself as a female.

I couldn’t take it anymore and had to tell my grandmother. It was on August 1st, 2010 that she found out. However, my method of telling her was having her guess. She knew something was up by how I was acting the past few days, so we started to have a conversation and the first thing she, and everyone who later found out, thought was I was gay. I said, “No, it’s a lot more complex than that.” Then she guessed transgender. Luckily for me, everyone has been very supportive and accepting of me. This is not always the case for transgender people. It’s a very sad thing when not even your own family can accept you. There is no excuse for that.

So anyway, my grandmother was already familiar with transgender from watching television shows. But, the one thing she said back then was, “I think you should have sex with a girl first and then make that decision.” And, that was just because she didn’t know at the time that it has nothing to do with sexual orientation. A lot of people can be confused by this saying things like, “If you’re still attracted to women, why not just stay a man?” Which is ridiculous since it has nothing to do with sexual orientation. The ‘T’ in ‘LGBT’ doesn’t really belong since the others are sexual orientations, and transgender is not.

Anyway, I started seeing a gender therapist shortly thereafter. I remember saying that I didn’t want to take hormones until after surgery since I didn’t want to be on medication. Plus, there are always dangers with taking testosterone blockers and estrogen. But, sometime later I decided that I wasn’t happy living as a male anymore and want to start living full-time but wanted to be on hormones first. So, in May 2011, I started taking testosterone blockers, and in September 2011 started taking estradiol. I’ll have a video dedicated to hormones since there is a lot to talk about. [Hormones]

In December 2011, I started looking for clothing. It was very difficult at first since I felt as though it was awkward for people to see a male looking for female clothing and I was terrified and embarrassed. But, during that time, I looked androgynous, people couldn’t tell if I was male or female. All I wore as a guy was the same clothes over and over again. I only had like three different outfits. All grey, all blue, and all black. That’s all I wore. I mean, now I wear all black, but that’s different.


Full-Time

I began to dress and when January 2012 came around, I was living full-time. My first day out in female clothing and makeup was terrifying. I didn’t think I could pass, but I did, and so much has changed since then.

I created a brand new identity for myself, changing my first, middle, and last name, so I could leave that old identity behind. My family was upset I was changing my last name and my new first name was nothing like my male name. I legally changed it in April 2012, and later the sex on my license, health insurance, those sorts of things. It was funny, before I changed the health insurance, I went to my doctor and the woman that schedules the future appointments looked at the paper that said ‘M’ for the gender on it and asked, “Is this right?” I just laughed and was like, [nod]. Because at the time I still was legally a male, so it had to stay. It was embarrassing too, but I changed it to female so I don’t have to worry about that anymore.

It was so exciting for me to finally start living the life I was always meant to have. But, something was still not right. I felt like I needed to look perfect so no one would know I was born a male. I was trying to impress people with my femininity. Some of that was due to the fact that I was still trying to figure things out and find my style. And, this took about six months, and then I found what works for me and makes me feel beautiful, which just so happens to be this alternative/Goth look, and it finally felt right. Though, this look probably isn’t the best for me due to the fact that it draws a lot of attention, and I don’t like that since it really messes with my anxiety. But, I do have the attitude that I didn’t care what people think anymore about me. I can go out without any makeup or feminine attire and not really care. And, I seem to completely pass too so that is a great thing.

Lastly, in March 2013, I had SRS (sex reassignment surgery) and removing the Adam’s apple. So, I don’t have to deal with either one of those things anymore. I will discuss the surgery in much greater detail in a different video. [SRS]

I don’t think anyone would really recognize me now after how much I have changed. If anyone did know me from back then, please get in contact with me. That would be very interesting. But, looking back at older photos really upsets me. You can the see the emotional struggle I had with myself, and others I just look so mentally disturbed due to my other issues. If it wasn’t for making this transition, I would’ve never been able to love myself and I don’t know where I would be. Because, now I do love myself more and can express myself easier than I was able to before. I cannot imagine life now as a male. I can’t even remember it really because it was so difficult to function.


So, that sums up my transition from male to female. I hope this video was informative and helpful. Thanks for watching!

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