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M Phil Education In Pakistan Essay

Nonpartisan Education Review / Essays: Volume 4, Number 2
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Challenges in Higher Education: Special reference to Pakistan and South Asian Developing Countries



Syed Zubair Haider


The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan





Abstract


Higher education has great importance in the development of a country. But unfortunately, its importance is yet to be realized in South Asian developing countries. For over a decade, countries have been working to uplift their educational standard by providing quality higher education to their citizens but there are many obstacles and hurdles that are emerging. These challenges (quantity, equity, quality, etc) are very common in nature but require proper procedure to address in the best manner.





Introduction


Education is a basic need of every society. A better education system can enhance the social, scientific, and technological improvement of a country. The human resource development of a country depends upon the quality of education imparted in country (Mohanthy, 2000). Higher education caters to the education in the colleges and universities. Allen (1988) observed “It is academically consider suitable to present distinctive feature of two stages for the purpose of clarity of concepts and avoiding duplication” Higher education is admittedly a separate stage quite distinct from primary, secondary, elementary, and higher secondary stage. (Best, 1994)


Higher education is recognized today as a capital investment and is of paramount importance for economic and social development of the country (Barnet, 1990). Institutions of higher education have the primary responsibility for equipping individuals with advanced knowledge and skills required for positions of responsibility in government, business, and other professions (Mughal & Manzoor, 1999). Quality higher education is a source of great potential for the socio economic and cultural development of the country. Stone, Horejs, & Lomas (1997) found “The nation can be transformed into a developed nation within the life time of a single generation.” Factors such as the distinctive nature of higher education institutions, international mobility of students, and teachers accessibility of computer based learning pursuit of research and scholarship, globalization of economy, and emerging challenges of the 21st century have a direct impact on the future development of higher education. (Mughal & Manzoor, 1999).

 

The purpose of higher education is not simply to impart knowledge in certain branches of knowledge; it has deeper meaning and objectives. The purpose may be multidimensional and may be termed as personal, social, economical, and cultural (Moore & Farris, 1991). Education and particularly higher education cannot be divorced from its milieu and social context. Religious, moral, historical, and cultural ethos permeates through the fabric of the educational system of a country (Best, 1994). Allen (1988) found “In the time of rapid international, political, and economical changes, the universities in South Asia and in developing countries are being transformed. Public expectations about access to higher education direct concern about role that universities can play in innovation and economic development” The applications of principles of market economies to the university systems of all countries have created a new context for higher education (Rao, 2003).

 

The people in Pakistan and South Asia are neither deficient in talent nor in moral qualities in comparison to any other nation of the world, but about two centuries of foreign rule and blind imitation of western attitudes and methods, unsuited to the genius and spiritual conditions of its people, have spoiled some of the virtues and have brought a bad name to their intellectual capacities (Siddiq, 1978). Hassan (1990) observed “Pakistan is unfortunately really backward in education as in certain other spheres of intellectual activities but luckily people are not inherently incompetent or morally incurable.” It is however necessary that the diagnosis about maladies should be correct and the measures for curing these maladies should be appropriate in the light of that diagnosis (Abdullah, 1992).

 

 

Challenges in Higher Education

 

South Asian countries are facing a critical period in their history, and on that account, everybody concerned with education has a responsibility for knowing what he is trying to do in bring up the next generation and why he is trying to do it (Mohanthy, 2000). Higher education is faced with very severe challenges in the shape of various economic, social, political, and moral changes, and its future depends on the response made by its people to these challenges (Rao, 2003).

 

Hayes (1987) found “The problems plaguing the educational system of Pakistan and South Asian countries are multidimensional like population explosion, lack of resources, non participation of the private sector, scarcity of qualified man power, inconsistency in the policies of various regimes, political instability, inefficient educational management system, wastage of resources, and poor implementation of policies and programme etc.”

 

The major challenges in higher education include:

 

Quantity

Despite the constraints of resources, the quantitative expansion has been highly spectacular in the post independence period. The institutions have not only been multiplied, the student enrollments at colleges and universities have registered exceptionally high rate of growth (Aeth, 1975). “The numbers of new entrants is now more than the total number of students in higher education prior to independence” (Iqbal, 1981). “The demand of higher education has thus increased by leaps and bonds. In spite of quality control as well as consolidation, it will continue to grow constantly for a long time to come” (Adeeb, 1996).

 

“The quantitative expansion is evident due to increasing aspiration of the people and social, economical, and political forces influencing the development of higher education. In the post independence period, the role of higher education has been very well recognized in the development of science and technology, as well as various arenas of human advancement” (Mohanthy, 2000).

 

Equity 

The major break through was evident in the democratic countries of the world where franchise was given to all adults irrespective of caste, creed, sex, and economic or social status (Barnet, 1990). Qureshi (1997) stated “The ideal of equity was severely constrained by exiting in qualities in the distribution of property and productive resources, low level of education and awareness among the people, and strong influences exercised by individual and group to further their own sectional interest rather than total social interest.”

 

“The philosophy of social justice is very much akin to the principle of equity. It is a welcome development over the concept of inherent inequality which was sought to be explained by biological differences among individuals” (Bayli, 1987).

 

1.   The philosophy of equality of men being applied to political process, distribution of property, and productive resources is viewed as the source of inequities in society. This approach helped the development of capabilities among men through equal distribution of higher educational opportunities both in quality and quantity.

 

2.   There is the philosophy of inequality as a natural hereditary, biological phenomena, without any scientific rational evidence. This concept is rooted in sectional interest rather than in societal interest.

 

The growing numbers of colleges and universities have provided access to higher education to the people in various parts and sections of developing countries in South Asia. “But the enrollments of students especially female students is relatively very small” (Varghese, 1980).

 

Quality

Development of society not only depends upon quantity of goods and services produced, but also on their quality. “It again leads to quality of life of the people and the quality of the society in general” (Hayes, 1987). It is rightly said that the philosophical basis of quality is the innate characteristics of a human being to attain a higher standard and the need of excellence for attaining a higher stage in the development (Quddus, 1990).

 

The scope of the idea of quality is severely limited by two widely prevailing views.

 

1. Quality is a selective phenomenon and only few can attain it.

 

2. Quality for quality sake or with regards to specific area rather than quality as mutually exclusive and emphasize selectively at the expense of equity.

 

Attempts to realize specific objectives of quality tend to narrow down the scope and discourage efforts to attain quality in various walks of life. Allen (1988) determined that “Various programs have been developed and are being implemented for the last two decades for improving the quality of teachers and their proficiency in discharging their duties and responsibilities.”

 

“The higher education commission has been providing financial assistance for these programs of faculty improvement which enable teachers to keep abreast with the latest development in their subject and conduct research studies as well as interact with experts in their own subject’s area and related field” (Hassan, 1990). “These programs aim at improving the professional competence of teachers so that they can impart high quality instructions and contribute significantly to raising the standard of higher education in developing countries” (Quddus, 1990).

 

Student Unrest

Among the challenges of higher education is the vital role of addressing students unrest. Bayli (1987) studied that “The condition of higher education in universities and colleges is not satisfactory in the eyes of students. Lack of physical and educational facilities is bringing much hindrance in the way of development”. Iqbal (1981) states “Teachers are less motivated to do certain research work. Most teachers are not competent, and they are teaching in higher education institutions.” They have limited knowledge about subject matter they taught and many of them have no clear idea about the subject. “Even in Pakistani universities, the teacher at M.Phil. and Ph.D. level, are not competent” (Rao, 2003). “They feel it difficult to indulge in research work due to lack of knowledge about research methodologies” (Mughal & Manzoor, 1999).

 

“Most students with backgrounds in arts, humanities, and management rather than in engineering technology, science, and medicine get involved in political activities. Therefore social or academic background is an important factor in determining the attitude of the students toward social economic and political issues” (Allen, 1988). Barnet (1990) found that “Therefore studies are necessary to fulfill the hope of the government and the aspirations of the youth as well as to cope with the changes which are the demands of all students of today”. The university students should learn to think about possible solutions to this fast changing world. “So in order to achieve this, the students at the university level need to get much deeper knowledge about the citizenship role in society and the new opportunities that open to the student due to economic development and technological advancement” (Qureshi, 1999).

 

Emotional Integration

Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration. It is felt that education should not aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality. Allen (1988) found that “It should broaden the outlook, foster the feeling of oneness, nationalism, a spirit of sacrifice, and tolerance so that narrow group interests are submerged in the largest interest of country.”

 

“Students, the future citizens of the country, should be trained in democracy, its value and ideals so that they will have sense of justice which is conducive for the development of national integration especially in the particular situation of developing countries which are striving to build up a structure of democratic living” (Rao, 2003).

 

Administrative Reform

In the last fifteen years or so, Pakistan and countries in South Asia have been giving increasing attention to the problems of university administration (Adeeb, 1996). Abdullah (1992) observed “They have noticed that despite the resources available for university expansion, they have not been able to obtain the best possible results.” “Further they have also begun to realize that much of this is due to lack of proper administration and what the outcome is on the development of higher education” (Aeth, 1975).

 

Social and cultural factors, which are often ignored, are as significant as any of the purely technical factors in the formulation and implementation of administration policy. Barnet (1990) states that “The linkages between the policy and these factors are neither casual nor limited to the contemporary period so the university administration clearly demonstrates that the success or failure of university administrative reforms hinges on the presence and absence of certain variables given below.”

 

1. Strong commitment and determined leadership

 

2. Appropriate political environment

 

3. Supportive social environment

 

4. Types of reform agents

 

5. Nature of reforms

 

6. Favourable bureaucratic attitude towards change

 

However bureaucratic resistance to reform is a phenomenon which can be found both in the advanced and the third world countries (Mohanthy, 2000). “Resistance to reform within a bureaucracy usually manifests itself in the behavioural patterns and attitudes of its members” (Hayes, 1987). “These responses may be grouped in two broad categories, those that seek to project the university administration service as an institution, and the individual responses to various threats, perceived from within and outside the bureaucracy. In both cases changes in the status quo are regarded as a potential threat to survival” (Varghese, 1980).

 

Faculty

The current size of present faculty is very small according to the general international standard. Mughal & Manzoor (1999) found that “The teacher/student ratio is very small even according to many third world countries standards. The quality of university education at the college has decreased because of the exiting faculty”. “Many present faculty members are teaching courses which are not their own specialization” (Bayli, 1987). “Many faculty members in most of universities are just master degree holders with little or no practical knowledge and higher education experiences” (Iqbal, 1981).

 

“The salary, financial rewards and benefits for the faculty is very low according to the rising cost of living in Pakistan. The higher education commission is making an effort to provide facilities to their teachers and hiring foreign faculty for the uplift of educational standards in Pakistan” (Rao, 2003). Still the staff and technical support of the teaching professor are not present. Adeeb (1996) found that “There is no real plan or set of rules for teaching evaluation or teaching effectiveness. The above problem is a great challenge for higher education in Pakistani and South Asian developing countries.”

 

“Studies include: an examination of the present supply and future prospects for attracting competent faculty members in sufficient number to meet requirements in various areas; appropriate action should be taken to provide an attractive and competitive faculty salary; reasonable teaching and research assignments; and fringe benefits to attract top ranking educators” (Allen, 1988).

 

Educational Policies

The faculty should have primary responsibilities for determining the educational policies of the institution. Barnet (1990) found “If this responsibility is not conferred and defined by the character of the institution, it should be expressed in legislation of the governing board.” “Educational polices include such fundamental matters as the subject matter and methods of instruction, facilities and support for the research work of faculty members and students, standards for admission of students, etc” (Aeth, 1975).

 

Hayes (1987) identify that “They also include those aspects of student life that relate directly to the educational process.” Mohanthy (2000) observed that “The faculty should also actively participate in decisions made on other matters that may directly affect the educational policies for which it is primarily responsible.” “These matters include major changes in the size of the student body, significant alteration in the academic calendar, establishment of new colleges and universities or division, the provision of extension services to the community, and assumption by the institution of research or service obligations to private or public agencies” (Allen, 1988).

 

Academic Freedom

The right of academic freedom must be recognized in order to enable the faculty members, researchers, and students to carry on their roles. Gibbons (1998) studied “The freedom of universities in making professional appointments, tenure research, salary scales, and all academic decision.” “Academic freedom and university autonomy are sometimes regarded as synonymous, but they are two quite different concepts, although they overlap at many points” (Taylor & Tashakkori, 1997).

 

Rao (2003) found that “These two functions are the essence of the progress and development of the higher education and administrative endeavours.” Quddus (1990) studied that “The basic function of a college or university is to preserve, augment, criticize, and transmit knowledge and to foster creative capacities.” “These functions are performed by a community of scholars who must be free to exercise independent judgment in the planning and execution of their educational responsibilities” (Varghese, 1980).

 

“Unfortunately a university may find it difficult to earn the academic freedom or autonomy and retain it in a new state where most, if not all, the cost of university education is a direct charge on the government” (Siddiq, 1978). Qureshi (1997) identified that “The board of trustees should be more concerned with matters affecting the relations of the university with the outside bodies and general policy than with the routine administration work which is dealt with by the university council.”

 

Courses and Curricula

The courses and curricula are not designed in accordance with the standard of higher education of the present day. Iqbal (1981) observed that “There is no continuity of some of the important courses: there is also no relationship between the related courses of common or similar knowledge.” Bayli (1987) studied that “So many important and modern courses required for higher education are not taught at all.” “The curricula are not written in detail and are left to the professors personal likes, dislikes, interests or experience” (Adeeb, 1996).

 

Quddus (1990) observed that “The basic science courses are not designed well to fit the need of the students, and they are not well organized, or correctly supervised by the department.” “Generally speaking, there are not enough well equipped faculty and administration offices, classrooms, or engineering, science, and other laboratories for the growing student body and faculty members” (Hassan, 1990).

 

Taylor & Tashakkori (1997) studied that “The workshops at the higher level are not suitable for training, because necessary materials, equipment, space, and techniques are not up to the mark according to the required standard.” “Equipment is old and not fit for some of the more specialize laboratory experiments” (Quddus, 1990). Varghese (1980) identify that “There has been constant change in and lowering of the standard of syllabi and courses leading to lazy mindedness resulting in lack of urge for higher achievements.” “Frequent change of study material and difficulties in availability is another contributory factor” (Quddus, 1990).

 

Unemployment

“While education cannot directly reduce unemployment, except by requiring more teachers, a reform of the educational system could help alleviate its impact especially on young people” (Mohanthy, 2000). Hayes (1987) found that “There is a marked mismatch in terms of the field and specialization of graduates and the absorptive capacity of the labour market.” “In the sense of employment, the planners of higher education are handicapped in the assessment of the actual labour market needs for skills in various sectors of the economy” (Aeth, 1975).

 

Barnet (1990) studied “Even though empirical evidence justified investment in higher education for economic growth, except for direct self-consumption, higher education failed to create additional employment since the type of education offered restricted the entrepreneurial spirit and initiative and discourages self employment.”

 

Budgeting and Financing

Central to all the foregoing is a new concept of budgeting and financing at the higher level. Bayli (1987) observed “The conventional system of an annual budget is probably the most confusing and least understood.” “The budget of course, performs a number of essential functions which even the most frustrated will acknowledge” (Rao, 2003). Allen (1988) identify “The concern here is with the budget as an instrument of academic planning which may promote the special aims of each college and constitute a practical means by which all university purpose may be realized ideally it must not only insure financial solvency of the university, but should also place responsibility and commensurate authority where it may be exercised most.”

 

Gibbons (1998) observed “Concerning other elements of the budget and the allocations made by officers or governing boards among competing demands, the faculty should be informed of important developments in administrative planning including proposed capital expenditures, and the faculty should also be consulted on major issues of policy involved in such development.” Taylor & Tashakkori (1997) says “Obviously any viable plan must be designed as to capitalize as fully as may be consistent with academic standards upon all of these, and hopefully to forestall periodic crises.”

 

Rao (2003) studied “In fact realistic planning and decisive action are the only way to prevent educational strategies from degenerating into spasmodic reactions to unforeseen exigencies.” “The university’s aim should be to fashion a system which in its year to year operation may provide for its own continuing renewal” (Adeeb, 1996).

 

Population Explosion

“The fast growing population in Pakistan and South Asian developing countries is another problem by causing over crowding in the higher educational institution because the number of higher level institutions is deficient” (Hayes, 1987). Mohanthy (2000) observed “The demand for the quantitative expansion of education at all levels remains one of the primary concerns because of the continuous population expansion.” Adeeb (2000) stated “The developing countries will account for nearly 50% of the total world population compared with 66% in 1950.” “The population of Asia as a proportion of the world’s total population (a reduction of 29.4% to 18.4%) is in a much weaker position than some ten to fifteen years ago” (Allen, 1988).

 

 

Suggestions to meet the Challenges

 

1.   Stress is laid on the need for improving the quality of education at every stage so that a proper foundation can be laid for advanced study in science, engineering, agriculture, and those other areas which are most closely allied to the national economic development and reconstruction of the nation as a whole.

 

2.   To begin from the top without reforming the lower stages is against the law of nature; it is against the law of evolutionary progress. Before any restrictions are imposed on the higher education, the earlier stages should be improved so as to produce better students for the higher stage.

 

3.   A critical point to be considered by educational planner is the adaptation of a multidimensional, flexible, and dynamic education system, which serves people according to their ability and aptitude and is responsive to their economic, social political and cultural needs.

 

4.   The new system of higher education should be flexible enough to offer a variety of courses, formal and non formal, full time and part time, correspondence and media based to fit every individual as well as the economic needs of the country

 

5.   Economic conditions of the people cannot be ignored in all matters in which the question of equal opportunities to all is involved. In an atmosphere of economic depression as it is today in Pakistan how could one expect from our youth to be able to develop their potential qualities in desired way.

 

6.   The test of qualities must be made reliable upon examination and more effective; the teaching method must be made more rational and natural; and last of all, the teachers must be kept fully satisfied. It is well known, that a foreign medium of instruction and examination is seriously hampering the progress of education. Pakistan will have to determine its policy with regards to this question also.

 

7.   There is great question of availability of qualified university teachers, suitably equipped libraries, and fully developed plants and laboratories. It is a matter of common knowledge that our resources in all these areas are very merger. Any unnecessary addition to the number of the universities at present would therefore mean nothing, but more ill-fed and ill-equipped institutions with no specially or individuality of purpose.

 

Higher education institutions must be responsive to the challenges of the rapidly changing and challenging new world: expectation of society and growing demands of the rising student population. This policy therefore looks forward to a new beginning in higher education in South Asian developing countries.




Citation: Haider, S. Z., (2008). Challenges in Higher Education: Special Reference to Pakistan and South Asian Developing Countries. Nonpartisan Education Review / Essays, 4(2). Retrieved [date] from http://www.nonpartisaneducation.org/Review/Essays/v4n2.pdf


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References

 

Abdullah, S. M (1992). Stray thoughts on education in Pakistan. Lahore, Pakistan: Aziz.

 

Adeeb, M. A. (1996). Comparative study of developed & developing countries. Multan: Beacon Books.

 

Aeth, R. (1975). Education & development in Third World. Hants, UK: Saxon House Lamington.

 

Allen, M. (1988). The goal of universities. Philadelphia, USA: The Society for Research into Higher Education.

 

Barnet, R. (1990). The idea of higher education. Philadelphia, USA: The Society for Research into Higher Education.

 

Bayli, J. (1987). Problems of higher education in the Third World. New Delhi, India: Uppal.

 

Best, J. W. (1994). Research in education. New Delhi, India: Prentice-Hall

 

Gibbons, M. (1998). Higher education relevance in the 21st century. Washington, DC, USA: The World Bank.

 

Hassan, A. H. (1990). Higher education in Third World. New Delhi, India: Indian Bibliographies Bureau.

 

Hayes, I. D. (1987). The crisis of education in Pakistan. Lahore, Pakistan: Vanguard Books.

 

Iqbal, M. A (1981). Education in Pakistan. Lahore, Pakistan: Aziz.

 

Mohanthy, J. (2000). Current trends in higher education. New Delhi, India: Deep & Deep.

 

Moore, M. K., & Farris, P. (1991, Fall). Combining a school university partnership with a career incentive program. Catalyst for Change, 21(1).

 

Mughal, N. A, & Manzoor. (1999). Issues in higher education: Problems and prospects of the Pakistani university. Jamhsoro, Pakistan: University of Sindh.

 

Quddus, N. J. (1990). Problems of education in Pakistan. Karachi, Pakistan: Royal Book Company.

 

Qureshi, N. A. (1997). Education as a change agent. Journal of Elementary Education, 1(7).

 

Rao, V. K. (2003). Higher education. New Delhi, India: A. P. H. Public Corporation.

 

Siddiq, M. K. (1978). Pakistan: An educational spectrum. Lahore, Pakistan: Arsalan.

 

Stone, M., Horejs, J., & Lomas, A. (1997). Commonalities and differences in teacher leadership at the elementary, middle and high school levels. Action in Teacher Education, 19(3), 49–64.

 

Taylor, D., & Tashakkori, A. (1997, November). Toward an understanding of teachers desire for participation in decision making. Journal of School Leadership.

 

Varghese, A. V. (1980). Higher education and management. New Delhi, India: S. B. Nangia.

 

World Bank/UNESCO. (2000). Higher education in developing countries: Peril and promise. Report of the Independent World Bank/UNESCO Task Force. Washington, D.C., USA: Authors.

Sample No. 1

 

I would like to thank you for giving me the opportunity to write a few words about my desired program and my future prospects.  I have successfully completed my matriculation and intermediate with a scoring of 82% and 58% respectively.
I have always shown willingness and keen interest in my existing and new subject matter. Along with that, academic skills have been an important consideration to me and I have a good understanding of them. I am interested in business studies because one has a greater chance to explore a variety of subjects. Also it will polish my academic skills and will provide me opportunity to develop skills in the area of business that can be applied in many different situations. This is a turning point of my career and I want to give it a great start and in that case I think Williams Business College in Australia is a very good choice. Its diploma of business administration is a very popular program and is in accordance with my requirements. As the college promises good career outcomes this program satisfies me very much. Also I will have a chance for further study in business degree. As I want to do my bachelors degree after this in some top level university in Australia.
Australian education system has a very good reputation and assures quality education. Also it is a safe country with multicultural and a welcoming environment.
Another reason for choosing Australia is that students who have studied in Australian universities are very successful in finding jobs in Pakistan in top level companies or even in setting up new business. The acquired skills and knowledge are also useful in making their existing businesses flourish to a much greater level.
This is one of the most important aspects of my preference of choosing Australia because I plan to join my family business when I will come back to my homeland or even if want to go for a job, along with a strong educational background this study will help me in making a difference in my professional life.
I hope that you will acknowledge my interests and will give me chance to study in a quality institution.

 

Best Regards,

Full Name

 

 
Sample No. 2

 

There are many reasons for which I have chosen United Kingdom to come for my higher studies. I did my FSc in Computer Science from Municipal degree college Faisalabad and I have got good marks in my previous results. I always take keen interest in my studies and I believe myself so I wand to spent my educational activities in a top class environment to satisfy my inner educational needs. These are the factors for which I decided to go for my study in UK.

            The reasons for choosing South Thames College are so many. Its education is of high quality. It is located in Europe and especially in London. It offers my desired business program. I am fulfilling its minimum requirement for admission. It also offers an academic, social and cultural experience of the finest quality.

            I have a special interest in English language. I love to live in an English speaking environment. There are 60 million people speaking English. The British educational system has a very good reputation. I have strong belief that I will prove myself to be a better at your College. I will be grateful if you please consider my application to study at your esteemed institute.

 

KindRegards,

Full Name

 

 

Sample No. 3

 

I have passed my MSc. Computer Science degree from University College of Information Technology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. There were nineteen subjects consisting of seventy-two credit hours. I did course projects during the two years of study individually as well as in a group which created in me self-confidence as well as ability to work in team environment. My final project was Management Information System of a private company.  Basically, I was interested in developing business applications because I did bachelors in commerce subjects. My knowledge of business and commerce as well as growing importance of computer technology in business and industry incited me to choose computer science as final field of study.

 

I have still great thirst for more education. My aims are to do a PhD in Computer Science. I know that according to the rules and regulations of Universities of Sweden I have to readmit and complete Masters program first and then apply again for the PhD in Computer Science if I fulfill the rules and regulations of the Swedish Government and its Educational Institutions. So I am applying for the same and I believe that this Masters program would polish my skills more and would enable me to get start PhD accordingly.

Sweden is education friendly country and promoting higher education in every possible manner without discrimination of race, gender and religion. Sweden has one of Europe�s most comprehensive quality education systems. The OECD puts Sweden among the world�s top investors in education. Investment has helped produce a vibrant, creative and student-centered system, one in which much of the work is left to the student�s own initiative. Though often demanding, such a system with its lack of rigid scheduling is also highly stimulating as it encourages students to develop a critical mind and an independent approach � two highly sought attributes in today�s knowledge-based employment market. Few of my friends are already studying in Swedish Universities and they admire the high standard of education and their amicable culture. These are the reasons for which I choose Sweden for my higher education.

         In Pakistan, while getting a reasonable job any foreign qualified person is always preferred and paid well. Also Pakistan is in a desperate need for foreign qualified persons and their skills for its development. So in future when I�ll return I am sure to get a good position to serve my country.

                                                                                   

         Best Regards,

         Full name

 

                                                                                                                                                              

Sample No. 4

 

If we look around in the world of Science, there are many potentials to be explored and challenges to be faced. New inventions are to be made in Bio Technology for memory or DNA analysis etc. Similarly in the field of VLSI design, energy consumption and time saving are the issues that need continuous concentration of minds in order to achieve the best.  

To be more specific, for video transmission in wireless media, efficient use of bandwidth needs good compression techniques along with an efficient and energy saving VLSI design to achieve fast, errorless and smooth video communication within the limited bandwidth.

           My mission is to develop an efficient video compression technique for mobile applications along with the VLSI circuit design that will be capable of performing video transmission with low energy consumption, less bandwidth requirement and efficient error checking.

          I have B.Sc. Electrical Engineer degree from University of Engineering & Technology Taxila (one of the best Engineering University of Pakistan) with majors of Electronics & Communication. During studies, the courses of Micro Electronics, Digital Signal Processing and Advance Programming Languages (C++ & Verilog HDL) boosted my knowledge and skills. My major project on wireless transmission of video data broadened my concepts of video compression techniques and video streaming being used for wireless networks.

Here is the summary of my project:

Wireless Transmission of Video Data

�        Compression and streaming of Video data using 264H/AVC compression technique

�        Mobile Internet 

�        Middleware Technique

�        Mobile Internet Protocoles (MICP, HTTPc etc.)

�        Mobile Operating Systems (Win C etc.)

�        Design of Java based client for video streaming on mobile

Digital circuits design of Microelectronics and RISC Architecture enabled me to bring my skills of innovation to a level where I could solve the complex design problems and develop efficient architecture based on RISC processor and circuit design that were capable of performing important functionalities. Following are some projects, which polished my potential of creativity.

�        Design and Implementation of 32-bit RISC Processor using Verilog HDL

�        Design of MIPS architecture with 12 Basic operations, 32-Bit Registers (32)

�        Verilog Code and tested by Veriwell Simulation

�        Design of Multiplier and Divider Circuit in Verilog HDL

�        32-Bit Multiplication & Division Codes in verilog

�        3rd Algorithm for Multiplier & Divider

�        Booth Algorithm for signed multiplication

�        Digital Electronic design in Verilog HDL

�        Serial Pattern Detectors

�        Parity Generators

�        Priority Encoders

�        Counters

�        Rotators

 

Along with above-mentioned skills, I have good programming skills in languages such as C, C++, RISC Assembly & Java. I am capable of working in both DOS and WINDOWS environments and I have good knowledge of Network Technologies and Objects Oriented Analysis & Design.

I think it is the time for me to go beyond the horizons and acquire knowledge of highest level. The well-qualified and experienced faculty, excellent laboratory facilities, exceptional research work and the inspiration given to students at your university would provide me an ideal platform for achieving my goals.

I hope that you will acknowledge my interests in acquiring the knowledge and doing PhD. and related research work under your kind supervision. I assure you that you will find me a very hardworking and result-oriented researcher who will build a high pillar of innovation and creativity on the strong foundation of knowledge at your university.

 

Best Regards,

Full Name

 

  

Sample No. 5

 

The course �BA (Hons) Business Management� which I have chosen to study is not being widely offered by the universities in Pakistan, and to be in United Kingdom means it will better enhance my leadership skills which are main to my course of business studies and better polish my skills in the most competitive, creative and practical environment. There is a wide mixture of cultures in the UK and there are foreign communities from most parts of the world, which means that I can learn how to live and compete in diverse culture. In UK there is freedom; people usually feel free to express their own opinions and to do what they want. There is creative environment; individual's ideas are encouraged. UK is where the English Language developed. There are more people using English as their first language in the UK than in any other country except the US. In United Kingdom there are 60 million people speaking English it means that I can easily communicate and study there.

UK is a relatively safe country; police do not usually carry guns, and there are strict controls on the ownership of weapons. The British educational system has a good reputation. Accredited qualifications obtained from British schools and universities are recognized in most parts of the world. There are courses in a wide variety of subjects, including many which are open to international students, which compel me to choose to study in UK. There is wide variety of food available (both traditional British food and international cuisine) especially in the bigger cities which means I can get what I want to eat.

The British weather is quite moderate. In general the summers are not too hot, and the winters are not too cold. The weather is pleasant enough for studying or working, especially between the spring and autumn.

Studying in UK will help me to build skills such as creative thinking, being able to work on my own initiative and strong teamwork and communication skills. British degrees are highly regarded by employers as they have a strong emphasis on practical experience whether this is in laboratory work, research projects, or case studies. Furthermore, admission into university is competitive and class sizes are restricted to ensure that all students have sufficient access to equipment that leads to better graduate outcome.

At the end I hope you will issue admission letter/visa so that I could continue my study in a world-class environment and to accomplish my dreams.

For these reasons I have chosen Newcastle College because it fulfills all of my requirements and I am also fulfilling all of its minimum requirement for admission.

 

Thanks a lot.

Full name

 Sample No. 6

 

              Thank you very much for providing me the opportunity to express my feelings regarding my higher study in United Kingdom and studying there for my further education. Coming to UK for higher studies means guaranteeing my future, the stability and the prosperity. The facilities and conducive atmosphere of United Kingdom will help me to enhance my skills in a better way and will lead me towards a bright future. I believe after studying in United Kingdom many multinational companies will be pleased to give me job place easily. So as recommended by my teachers, my parents and keeping in mind all the above factors UK is the best place for me to do my higher study. I believe that I will have a place in your esteemed organization and it will be an honor for me to continue my study in UK.  

           During my previous study I always got excellent grades and I always have keen interest in my study and I believe in myself. For these reasons I have chosen Kingston University because it fulfills all of my requirements and I am also fulfilling all of its minimum requirement for admission. I do hope that I shall be accepted for admission.

 

Best Regards,

Full Name

 

 

Helping notes for writing your own personal statement

 

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