Annie Besant In Hindi Essay On Mahatma
Home Rule League, either of two short-lived organizations of the same name in India established in April and September 1916, respectively, by Indian militant nationalist Bal Gangadhar Tilak and British social reformer and Indian independence leader Annie Besant. The term, borrowed from a similar movement in Ireland, referred to the efforts of Indian nationalists to achieve self-rule from the British Indian government.
Tilak’s group, founded at Poona (now Pune, Maharashtra), concentrated its efforts mostly in western India, and that of Besant, set up at Madras (now Chennai, Tamil Nadu), had more of an all-India scope. Both, however, worked toward the same objective of mobilizing Indian public opinion—largely by peaceful means—in favour of self-government, and from the start each worked closely with the other. Pressure by Home Rulers on the British contributed to the drafting of the Montagu Declaration in 1917 by Edwin Samuel Montagu, secretary of state for India, which in turn laid the groundwork for political reforms in India instituted by Britain after World War I. By then, however, the influence of the Home Rule organizations had diminished. Although their role in the Indian independence movement had been modest, they did succeed in helping to sustain the movement’s impetus during the war years—as manifested in the signing of the Lucknow Pact in December 1916.
The pre-independence period
The Indian National Congress first convened in December 1885, though the idea of an Indian nationalist movement opposed to British rule dated from the 1850s. During its first several decades, the Congress Party passed fairly moderate reform resolutions, though many within the organization were becoming radicalized by the increased poverty that accompanied British imperialism. In the early 20th century, elements within the party began to endorse a policy of swadeshi (“of our own country”), which called on Indians to boycott of imported British goods and promoted Indian-made goods. By 1917 the group’s “extremist” Home Rule wing, which was formed by Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Annie Besant the previous year, had begun to exert significant influence by appealing to India’s diverse social classes.
In the 1920s and ’30s the Congress Party, led by Mohandas (Mahatma) Gandhi, began advocating nonviolent noncooperation. The new change in tactics was precipitated by the protest over the perceived feebleness of the constitutional reforms enacted in early 1919 (Rowlatt Acts) and Britain’s manner of carrying them out, as well as by the widespread outrage among Indians in response to the massacre of civilians in Amritsar (Punjab) that April. Many of the acts of civil disobedience that followed were implemented through the All India Congress Committee, formed in 1929, which advocated avoiding taxes as a protest against British rule. Notable in that regard was the Salt March in 1930 led by Gandhi. Another wing of the Congress Party, which believed in working within the existing system, contested general elections in 1923 and 1937 as the Swaraj (Home Rule) Party, with particular success in the latter year, winning 7 out of 11 provinces.
When World War II began in 1939, Britain made India a belligerent without consulting Indian elected councils. That action angered Indian officials and prompted the Congress Party to declare that India would not support the war effort until it had been granted complete independence. In 1942 the organization sponsored mass civil disobedience to support the demand that the British “quit India.” British authorities responded by imprisoning the entire Congress Party leadership, including Gandhi, and many remained in jail until 1945. After the war the British government of Clement Attlee passed an independence bill in July 1947, and independence was achieved the following month. In January 1950 India’s constitution as an independent state took effect.
Postindependence dominance of the Nehru clan
From 1951 until his death in 1964, Jawaharlal Nehru dominated the Congress Party, which won overwhelming victories in the elections of 1951–52, 1957, and 1962. The party united in 1964 to elect Lal Bahadur Shastri and in 1966 Indira Gandhi (Nehru’s daughter) to the posts of party leader and thus prime minister. In 1967, however, Indira Gandhi faced open revolt within the party, and in 1969 she was expelled from the party by a group called the “Syndicate.” Nevertheless, her New Congress Party scored a landslide victory in the 1971 elections, and for a period it was unclear which party was the true rightful heir of the Indian National Congress label.
In the mid-1970s the New Congress Party’s popular support began to fracture. From 1975 Gandhi’s government grew increasingly more authoritarian, and unrest among the opposition grew. In the parliamentary elections held in March 1977, the opposition Janata (People’s) Party scored a landslide victory over the Congress Party, winning 295 seats in the Lok Sabha (the lower chamber of India’s parliament) against 153 for the Congress; Gandhi herself lost to her Janata opponent. On January 2, 1978, she and her followers seceded and formed a new opposition party, popularly called Congress (I)—the “I” signifying Indira. Over the next year, her new party attracted enough members of the legislature to become the official opposition, and in 1981 the national election commission declared it the “real” Indian National Congress. In 1996 the “I” designation was dropped. In November 1979 Gandhi regained a parliamentary seat, and the following year she was again elected prime minister. In 1982 her son Rajiv Gandhi became nominal head of the party, and, upon her assassination in October 1984, he became prime minister. In December he led the Congress Party to an overwhelming victory in which it secured 401 seats in the legislature.
Although the Congress Party remained the largest party in parliament in 1989, Rajiv Gandhi was unseated as prime minister by a coalition of opposition parties. While campaigning to regain power in May 1991, he was assassinated by a suicide bomber associated with the Tamil Tigers, a separatist group in Sri Lanka. He was succeeded as party leader by P.V. Narasimha Rao, who was elected prime minister in June 1991.
The party since 1991
In contrast to the party’s historical socialist policies, Rao embraced economic liberalization. By 1996 the party’s image was suffering from various reports of corruption, and in elections that year the Congress Party was reduced to 140 seats, its lowest number in the Lok Sabha to that point, becoming parliament’s second largest party. Rao subsequently resigned as prime minister and, in September, as party president. He was succeeded as president by Sitaram Kesri, the party’s first non-Brahman leader.
The United Front (UF) government—a coalition of 13 parties—came to power in 1996 as a minority government with the support of the Congress Party. However, as the largest single party in opposition in parliament after the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP; Indian People’s Party), the Congress Party was vital in both making and defeating the UF. In November 1997 the Congress Party withdrew its support from the UF, prompting elections in February 1998. To boost its popularity among the masses and improve the party’s performance in the forthcoming elections, the Congress Party leaders urged Sonia Gandhi—the Italian-born widow of Rajiv Gandhi—to assume the leadership of the party. She had previously declined overtures to play an active role in party affairs, but at that time she agreed to campaign. Although a BJP-led coalition government came to power, the Congress Party and its partners were able to deny the BJP an absolute majority in the Lok Sabha. The party’s better-than-expected performance in the national elections was attributed by many observers to Sonia Gandhi’s charisma and vigorous campaigning. After the 1998 elections, Kesri resigned as party president, and Sonia Gandhi assumed the leadership of the party.
National parliamentary elections were again held in 1999, when one of the BJP’s major allies, the All India Dravidian Progressive Federation (All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam; AIADMK) party, withdrew its support. Despite aggressive campaigning by its leaders, the Congress Party suffered a worse electoral performance than it had in 1996 and 1998, winning only 114 seats. Nevertheless, in the 2004 national elections the party scored a surprising victory and returned to power. Gandhi, however, declined an invitation to become prime minister and instead supported Manmohan Singh, a former finance minister, who in May 2004 became the country’s first Sikh prime minister. The party again surprised pundits in the 2009 parliamentary elections by increasing its number of seats in the Lok Sabha from 153 to 206, its best showing since 1991.
By the 2014 Lok Sabha polling, however, the party had lost much of its popular support, mainly because of several years of poor economic conditions in the country and growing discontent over a series of corruption scandals involving government officials. The party touted its record at passing legislation aimed at improving the lot of those living in poverty and rural areas, and it fielded Sonia’s son, Rahul Gandhi, to be its candidate for prime minister. However, the BJP and its leading candidate, Narendra Modi, successfully won over the electorate. The results of the elections, announced in mid-May, were an overwhelming electoral victory for the BJP while the Congress Party suffered a stunning loss, securing only 44 seats in the chamber (in 2015 the party won a by-election in Madhya Pradesh, increasing its seat total to 45). It was the party’s worst-ever performance in a national election. One consequence of its poor performance was that it was not able to assume the position of the official opposition party, since it failed to garner the minimum 55 seats (10 percent of the chamber’s total) required for that role. Singh left office on May 26, the day Modi was sworn in as prime minister.
The Congress Party’s presence at the state level has closely mirrored its performance at the national level. It dominated nearly all state governments in the early years after independence and later began alternating power with other national parties (e.g., the BJP) or with local parties (e.g., the Telugu Desam Party in Andhra Pradesh). By the early 21st century, however, Congress’s influence in state politics had declined to the point where it controlled only a minority of state governments. The party has tended to do better in the northeastern and northern states and poorly in most of the southern states.
Policy and structure
The Congress Party is a hierarchically structured party. Delegates from state and district parties attend an annual national conference, which elects a president and the All India Congress Committee. However, the 20-member Congress Working Committee, the majority of whose members are appointed by the party president (handpicked by the prime minister when the party is in power), wields enormous influence. The party is also organized into various committees and sections (e.g., youth and women’s groups), and it publishes a daily newspaper, the National Herald. Mirroring the party’s declining fortunes, the party’s membership dropped from nearly 40 million in the mid-1990s to under 20 million at the beginning of the 21st century.
The party has traditionally supported socialist economic policies within the framework of a mixed economy. In the 1990s, however, it endorsedmarket reforms, including privatization and the deregulation of the economy. It also has supported secular policies that encourage equal rights for all citizens, including those in lower castes. Throughout much of the Cold War period, the Congress Party championed a foreign policy of nonalignment, which called for India to form ties with both the West and communist countries but to avoid formal alliances with either. Nonetheless, American support for Pakistan led the party to endorse a friendship treaty with the Soviet Union in 1971.